Kant wrote a book discussing his theory of virtue in terms of independence which he believed was "a viable modern alternative to more familiar Greek views about virtue". This book is often criticized for its hostile tone and for not articulating his thoughts about autocracy comprehensibly. In the self-governance model of Aristotelian virtue, the non-rational part of the soul can be made to listen to reason through training. Although Kantian self-governance appears to involve "a rational crackdown on appetites and emotions" with lack of harmony between reason and emotion, Kantian virtue denies requiring "self-conquest, self-suppression, or self-silencing". They dispute that "the self-mastery constitutive of virtue is ultimately mastery over our tendency of will to give priority to appetite or emotion unregulated by duty, it does not require extirpating, suppressing, or silencing sensibility in general".
Typically contrasted with deontological/Kantian and consequentialist/utilitarian ethics, care ethics is found to have affinities with moral perspectives such as African ethics, , and others. Critics fault care ethics with being a kind of slave morality, and as having serious shortcomings including essentialism, parochialism, and ambiguity. Although care ethics is not synonymous with feminist ethics, much has been written about care ethics as a feminine and feminist ethic, in relation to motherhood, international relations, and political theory. Care ethics is widely applied to a number of moral issues and ethical fields, including caring for animals and the environment, bioethics, and more recently public policy. Originally conceived as most appropriate to the private and intimate spheres of life, care ethics has branched out as a political theory and social movement aimed at broader understanding of, and public support for, care-giving activities in their breadth and variety.
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This story -- and the story of Neo-Kantianism's rise to prominence generally -- has been explored in some detail by Klaus Koehnke. A quick answer is that it grew out of the dissatisfaction that mid-19th century European intellectuals felt with the speculative, romantic-metaphysical character of absolute idealism -- a dissatisfaction that didn't manifest itself across the English Channel until a few decades later. Early Neo-Kantians like Otto Liebmann and Kuno Fischer were trained in Germany, and so it was natural for them to look back to the origin of modern German thought (rather than to Hume, Aristotle, etc). Moreover, in Kant they found an opponent of the metaphysical excesses of Hegelianism and a defender of the natural sciences that were, by 1870, producing radically altered industrial, medical, and technological landscapes.
Kant's reputation gradually rose through the latter portion of the 1780s, sparked by a series of important works: the 1784 essay, ""; 1785's (his first work on moral philosophy); and, from 1786, But Kant's fame ultimately arrived from an unexpected source. In 1786, published a series of public letters on Kantian philosophy. In these letters, Reinhold framed Kant's philosophy as a response to the central intellectual controversy of the era: the . had accused the recently deceased (a distinguished dramatist and philosophical essayist) of . Such a charge, tantamount to atheism, was vigorously denied by Lessing's friend , leading to a bitter public dispute among partisans. The gradually escalated into a debate about the values of the Enlightenment and the value of reason.By 1918, Russell is conscious that his arguments for mind/matter dualism and against neutral monism are open to dispute. Neutral monism opposes both materialism (the doctrine that what exists is material) and British and Kantian idealism (the doctrine that only thought or mind is ultimately real), arguing that reality is more fundamental than the categories of mind (or consciousness) and matter, and that these are simply names we give to one and the same neutral reality. The proponents of neutral monism include John Dewey and William James (who are sometimes referred to as American Realists), and Ernst Mach. Given the early Russell’s commitment to mind/matter dualism, neutral monism is to him at first alien and incredible. Still, he admits being drawn to the ontological simplicity it allows, which fits neatly with his preference for constructions over inferences and his increasing respect for Occam’s razor, the principle of not positing unnecessary entities in one’s ontology (Papers 8, p. 195).